THE UNITED STATES. 485
from 3 to 4 per cent. For thirty years this iron has been used in making Bessemer steel at Steelton, usually forming about one-third of the charge, but sometimes it has been converted alone. It has also been used by the Lackawanna Company at their Scran-ton works for the manufacture of rails. Quite a large amount of iron is sold to makers of steel castings and for use in acid open-hearth furnaces, because the phosphorus in the pig-iron is below .04 per cent.
There are .several blast furnaces in the vicinity of the Cornwall banks, some owned by The Pennsylvania Steel Company, some by private individuals, and some by the Lackawanna Company, but the only large steel works in the district is The Pennsylvania Steel Company at Steelton. This company was not the first to produce Bessemer steel in this country, but it was the first to .make it regularly on a commercial scale, the Bessemer plant being built in 1868. During the last ten years this company has expanded in several directions:
(1) By building a rail mill and shipyard at Sparrow's Point, near Baltimore, known as the Maryland Steel Company.
(2) By making a specialty of frogs, switches and general railway equipment, the plant at Steelton being the largest in the country.
(3) By enlarging its open-hearth departments for making special steels.
(4) By the development of a bridge shop which has become widely known for some very large operations, among which may be mentioned the following:
Niagara steel arch, 550 feet span, double-track railroad.
Duluth drawbridge, 500 feet draw span.
Gotkeik viaduct in Burmah, 320 feet high, 2280 feet long.
The new East Kiver Suspension Bridge, 1700 feet span.
Between Steelton and Harrisburg are the plate rolling mills of the Central Iron and Steel Company. Pig. XXII-K shows the Bessemer plant at Steelton, and Pig. XXII-L a cross-section of the open-hearth department.
SEC. XXIIi.—Sparrow's Point.—The iron and steel industry of Maryland is represented by the Maryland Steel Company, an extension of The Pennsylvania Steel Company, of Steelton, Pa. It was started on new ground in the year 1887, on the Chesapeake